Thyroid cancer-Types, Symptoms and Treatment

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is one of the thyroid conditions in which the cells in the thyroid gland undergo genetic mutation & grow abnormally. 

The thyroid gland plays a vital role in our body's metabolism, growth & development by releasing hormones into the blood. Any effect on the thyroid gland results in severe changes in our body. 

Let's have a look at some of the types of thyroid cancers that are identified by researchers-

Papillary thyroid cancer: 80% of cases are of this type of thyroid cancer with a high rate of recovery. It grows very slowly & spreads to lymph nodes in your neck.

Follicular thyroid cancer: This type of cancer occurs in almost 10-15% of the cases. It spreads from lymph nodes to body vessels.

Medullary cancer: Less common type cancer which can be easily found out at an early stage through a blood test.

Anaplastic thyroid cancer: Rare cancer, very aggressive, and spreads to other body parts at a very faster rate compared with other cancers.

Thyroid cancer


The cause of thyroid cancer is still unknown but certain conditions need to be considered as risk factors that are related to thyroid cancer.

  • Inherited genetic conditions

  • Iodine deficiency

  • Radiation exposure 


Thyroid cancer may not show any kind of symptoms & it's not possible to notice in the early stages. Some of the symptoms which are most commonly seen in later stages are as follows -

  • Neck, throat pain

  • Lump in your neck

  • Difficulty swallowing

  • Vocal changes, hoarseness

  • Cough


There are several treatments for thyroid cancer and it's easily curable even at advanced stages. With effective treatment, there are high chances of recovery rate.

Below are the treatment methods which helps to cure thyroid cancer-

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid surgery (thyroidectomy)- Surgery removes a part or entire thyroid depending on the stage of cancer.

Radioactive iodine- Low & high doses of iodine with radioactivity used to destroy overactive gland & cancerous tissue respectively 

External radiation- The radiation method is used slowly in several sittings to kill the thyroid cancer cells.

Thyroid hormone pills- Hormone pills used to replace the thyroid hormone & to prevent cancer from coming back.

Recombinant human TSH- This is the stimulating agent used to show cancer clearly on tests.

Antithyroid medications- Medications are used to suppress the hormones in hyperthyroidism. The most commonly used drugs are methimazole and propylthiouracil.

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