Breast cancer: Symptoms,Cause and Treatment

Breast cancer is the cancer that occurs in breast cells specifically to the lobules(milk glands) or the ducts(which transfer milk from glands to the nipple). It also occurs in some fibrous tissues & also In fatty tissues present within the breast.

There are several different types of breast cancer which includes- 

Ductal carcinoma: It's the most common type & this starts in the milk ducts.

Lobular carcinoma: Here breast cancer starts in the lobules.

Let's have a brief understanding of the stages in breast cancer:

Stage 0: Here the cells are restricted within the ducts and have not occupied surrounding tissues. This stage is known as ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS).

Stage 1: In this stage, the tumor measures up to 2 centimeters & had not affected any lymph nodes.

Stage 2: The tumor is 2 cm across, and it has started to spread to nearby nodes in this stage.

Stage 3: Here the tumor is up to 5 cm or more than that and it has already spread to several lymph

 Stage 4: In this stage breast cancer has spread to various organs, particularly bones, liver, brain, or lungs.

It's considered the most common cancer in women after lung cancer. Generally, Breast Cancer occurs in both men & women but it's more common in women compared with men.

Cause

Breast Cancer is a disease that occurs due to the abnormal growth of breast cells. These cells grow more rapidly than the other healthy cells & form a mass or lump. These cells also spread to lymph nodes & other parts of the body.

The exact cause of breast cancer is still unknown but certain risk factors need to be considered to prevent & for early diagnosis.

  • Age factor is one of the risk factors. With the increase in age, there are some chances of breast cancer.

  • Inherited genes

  • History of previous breast cancer 

  • Radiation exposure

  • Puberty at an early age.

  • Bodyweight & dense breast tissue

  • Hormonal treatment

  • Exposure to high estrogen levels in any treatment.

  • Alcohol consumption

Symptoms

 Some of the breast cancer symptoms are as follows:

  • Thick tissue or lump in the breast or armpits.

  • pain in the armpits or breast which lasts even after monthly cycles.

  • Redness appears on breast skin similar to the surface of an orange

  • a rash around one or both nipples along with blood discharge.

  • an inverted nipple

  • There is a gradual change in the size or shape of the breast.

  • Scaling on the skin of breast or nipple.


Treatment

Breast cancer treatment is based on the stage of cancer, patient age & health condition, and his/her preferences.

These are the main treatment options for breast cancer:

  • radiation therapy

  • surgery

  • biological therapy/ targeted drug therapy

  • hormone therapy

  • chemotherapy

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